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MySQL Data Types

Source: http://www.tutorialspoint.com/mysql/mysql-data-types.htm

Properly defining the fields in a table is important to the overall optimization of your database. You should use only the type and size of field you really need to use; don't define a field as 10 characters wide if you know you're only going to use 2 characters. These types of fields (or columns) are also referred to as data types, after the type of data you will be storing in those fields.

MySQL uses many different data types, broken into three categories: numeric, date and time, and string types.

Numeric Data Types:

MySQL uses all the standard ANSI SQL numeric data types, so if you're coming to MySQL from a different database system, these definitions will look familiar to you. The following list shows the common numeric data types and their descriptions.

  • INT - A normal-sized integer that can be signed or unsigned. If signed, the allowable range is from -2147483648 to 2147483647. If unsigned, the allowable range is from 0 to 4294967295. You can specify a width of up to 11 digits.
  • TINYINT - A very small integer that can be signed or unsigned. If signed, the allowable range is from -128 to 127. If unsigned, the allowable range is from 0 to 255. You can specify a width of up to 4 digits.
  • SMALLINT - A small integer that can be signed or unsigned. If signed, the allowable range is from -32768 to 32767. If unsigned, the allowable range is from 0 to 65535. You can specify a width of up to 5 digits.
  • MEDIUMINT - A medium-sized integer that can be signed or unsigned. If signed, the allowable range is from -8388608 to 8388607. If unsigned, the allowable range is from 0 to 16777215. You can specify a width of up to 9 digits.
  • BIGINT - A large integer that can be signed or unsigned. If signed, the allowable range is from -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807. If unsigned, the allowable range is from 0 to 18446744073709551615. You can specify a width of up to 11 digits.
  • FLOAT(M,D) - A floating-point number that cannot be unsigned. You can define the display length (M) and the number of decimals (D). This is not required and will default to 10,2, where 2 is the number of decimals and 10 is the total number of digits (including decimals). Decimal precision can go to 24 places for a FLOAT.
  • DOUBLE(M,D) - A double precision floating-point number that cannot be unsigned. You can define the display length (M) and the number of decimals (D). This is not required and will default to 16,4, where 4 is the number of decimals. Decimal precision can go to 53 places for a DOUBLE. REAL is a synonym for DOUBLE.
  • DECIMAL(M,D) - An unpacked floating-point number that cannot be unsigned. In unpacked decimals, each decimal corresponds to one byte. Defining the display length (M) and the number of decimals (D) is required. NUMERIC is a synonym for DECIMAL.

Date and Time Types:

The MySQL date and time datatypes are:

  • DATE - A date in YYYY-MM-DD format, between 1000-01-01 and 9999-12-31. For example, December 30th, 1973 would be stored as 1973-12-30.
  • DATETIME - A date and time combination in YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS format, between 1000-01-01 00:00:00 and 9999-12-31 23:59:59. For example, 3:30 in the afternoon on December 30th, 1973 would be stored as 1973-12-30 15:30:00.
  • TIMESTAMP - A timestamp between midnight, January 1, 1970 and sometime in 2037. This looks like the previous DATETIME format, only without the hyphens between numbers; 3:30 in the afternoon on December 30th, 1973 would be stored as 19731230153000 ( YYYYMMDDHHMMSS ).
  • TIME - Stores the time in HH:MM:SS format.
  • YEAR(M) - Stores a year in 2-digit or 4-digit format. If the length is specified as 2 (for example YEAR(2)), YEAR can be 1970 to 2069 (70 to 69). If the length is specified as 4, YEAR can be 1901 to 2155. The default length is 4.

String Types:

Although numeric and date types are fun, most data you'll store will be in string format. This list describes the common string datatypes in MySQL.

  • CHAR(M) - A fixed-length string between 1 and 255 characters in length (for example CHAR(5)), right-padded with spaces to the specified length when stored. Defining a length is not required, but the default is 1.
  • VARCHAR(M) - A variable-length string between 1 and 255 characters in length; for example VARCHAR(25). You must define a length when creating a VARCHAR field.
  • BLOB or TEXT - A field with a maximum length of 65535 characters. BLOBs are "Binary Large Objects" and are used to store large amounts of binary data, such as images or other types of files. Fields defined as TEXT also hold large amounts of data; the difference between the two is that sorts and comparisons on stored data are case sensitive on BLOBs and are not case sensitive in TEXT fields. You do not specify a length with BLOB or TEXT.
  • TINYBLOB or TINYTEXT - A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 255 characters. You do not specify a length with TINYBLOB or TINYTEXT.
  • MEDIUMBLOB or MEDIUMTEXT - A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 16777215 characters. You do not specify a length with MEDIUMBLOB or MEDIUMTEXT.
  • LONGBLOB or LONGTEXT - A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 4294967295 characters. You do not specify a length with LONGBLOB or LONGTEXT.
  • ENUM - An enumeration, which is a fancy term for list. When defining an ENUM, you are creating a list of items from which the value must be selected (or it can be NULL). For example, if you wanted your field to contain "A" or "B" or "C", you would define your ENUM as ENUM ('A', 'B', 'C') and only those values (or NULL) could ever populate that field.

MySQL Field Types

Illustrated in Table.
Resource: http://help.scibit.com/mascon/masconMySQL_Field_Types.html

Type
Use for
Size
TINYINT
A very small integer
The signed range is –128 to 127. The unsigned range is 0 to 255.
SMALLINT
A small integer
The signed range is –32768 to 32767. The unsigned range is 0 to 65535
MEDIUMINT
A medium-size integer
The signed range is –8388608 to 8388607. The unsigned range is 0 to 16777215
INT or INTEGER
A normal-size integer
The signed range is –2147483648 to 2147483647. The unsigned range is 0 to 4294967295
BIGINT
A large integer
The signed range is –9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807. The unsigned range is 0 to 18446744073709551615
FLOAT
A small (single-precision) floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned
Ranges are –3.402823466E+38 to –1.175494351E-38, 0 and 1.175494351E-38 to 3.402823466E+38. If the number of Decimals is not set or <= 24 it is a single-precision floating point number
DOUBLE,
DOUBLE PRECISION,
REAL
A normal-size (double-precision) floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned
Ranges are -1.7976931348623157E+308 to -2.2250738585072014E-308, 0 and 2.2250738585072014E-308 to 1.7976931348623157E+308. If the number of Decimals is not set or 25 <= Decimals <= 53 stands for a double-precision floating point number
DECIMAL,
NUMERIC
An unpacked floating-point number. Cannot be unsigned
Behaves like a CHAR column: “unpacked” means the number is stored as a string, using one character for each digit of the value. The decimal point, and, for negative numbers, the ‘-‘ sign is not counted in Length. If Decimals is 0, values will have no decimal point or fractional part. The maximum range of DECIMAL values is the same as for DOUBLE, but the actual range for a given DECIMAL column may be constrained by the choice of Length and Decimals. If Decimals is left out it’s set to 0. If Length is left out it’s set to 10. Note that in MySQL 3.22 the Length includes the sign and the decimal point
DATE
A date
The supported range is ‘1000-01-01’ to ‘9999-12-31’. MySQL displays DATE values in ‘YYYY-MM-DD’ format
DATETIME
A date and time combination
The supported range is ‘1000-01-01 00:00:00’ to ‘9999-12-31 23:59:59’. MySQL displays DATETIME values in ‘YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’ format
TIMESTAMP
A timestamp
The range is ‘1970-01-01 00:00:00’ to sometime in the year 2037. MySQL displays TIMESTAMP values in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS, YYMMDDHHMMSS, YYYYMMDD or YYMMDD format, depending on whether M is 14 (or missing), 12, 8 or 6, but allows you to assign values to TIMESTAMP columns using either strings or numbers. A TIMESTAMP column is useful for recording the date and time of an INSERT or UPDATE operation because it is automatically set to the date and time of the most recent operation if you don’t give it a value yourself
TIME
A time
The range is ‘-838:59:59’ to ‘838:59:59’. MySQL displays TIME values in ‘HH:MM:SS’ format, but allows you to assign values to TIME columns using either strings or numbers
YEAR
A year in 2- or 4- digit formats (default is 4-digit)
The allowable values are 1901 to 2155, and 0000 in the 4 year format and 1970-2069 if you use the 2 digit format (70-69). MySQL displays YEAR values in YYYY format, but allows you to assign values to YEAR columns using either strings or numbers. (The YEAR type is new in MySQL 3.22.)
CHAR
A fixed-length string that is always right-padded with spaces to the specified length when stored
The range of Length is 1 to 255 characters. Trailing spaces are removed when the value is retrieved. CHAR values are sorted and compared in case-insensitive fashion according to the default character set unless the BINARY keyword is given
VARCHAR
A variable-length string. Note: Trailing spaces are removed when the value is stored (this differs from the ANSI SQL specification)
The range of Length is 1 to 255 characters. VARCHAR values are sorted and compared in case-insensitive fashion unless the BINARY keyword is given
TINYBLOB,
TINYTEXT

A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 255 (2^8 - 1) characters
BLOB,
TEXT

A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 65535 (2^16 - 1) characters
MEDIUMBLOB,
MEDIUMTEXT

A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 16777215 (2^24 - 1) characters
LONGBLOB,
LONGTEXT

A BLOB or TEXT column with a maximum length of 4294967295 (2^32 - 1) characters
ENUM
An enumeration
A string object that can have only one value, chosen from the list of values ‘value1’, ‘value2’, ..., or NULL. An ENUM can have a maximum of 65535 distinct values.
SET
A set
A string object that can have zero or more values, each of which must be chosen from the list of values ‘value1’, ‘value2’, ... A SET can have a maximum of 64 members

Last edited Nov 1, 2012 at 11:08 AM by adriancs, version 3